What is COPD? What are the stages of COPD?

What is COPD?

COPD means the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic lung disease which is common and causes an obstruction in airflow from the lungs. People who have this disease are at great risk of developing lung cancer, heart diseases, and other conditions. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the most common in this COPD.

Chronic bronchitis is occurred when there is inflammation in lining of bronchial tubes that carry air to and from alveoli of the lungs. It is characterized by mucus production and cough on daily routine. The other common condition in this is emphysema in which alveoli at the end of bronchioles of lungs are damaged as a result of exposure to cigarette also other irritating gases especially matter.

If proper management is provided to patients of COPD then people can achieve exceptional quality of life and control symptoms of it. Also reduces the risk of getting other conditions. It is a treatable lung disease but with the treatment given at the right time.

COPD Causes:

They are described below:

Other irritant and cigarette smoke:

Long term smoking habit leads to COPD. Other irritants like secondhand smoke, air pollution, denudation to fumes, dust and smoke, cigar smoke, etc also cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

a-1 antitrypsin:

This disease is also due to genetic disorder in which there is deficiency of protein called as a-1 antitrypsin. It can affect the liver also the lungs. COPD can occur in infants and children just not only in the adults with smoking habits.  

Causes for airway obstruction:

Chronic Bronchitis: The bronchial tubes gets inflamed also becomes narrowed. Lungs start to produce mucous that further blocks the tubes. When you try to clear the airway you will have cough.

Emphysema: It causes destruction of elastic fibers and fragile walls of alveoli. When you exhale the small airways get damage badly.

Education for COPD patients and their caregivers:

Exercise: First ask your healthcare provider for exercise especially aerobics. Then do exercise according to their guidelines.

Benefits: Improves the symptoms of COPD. Enhances your endurance. You will feel relaxed and healthy after it. Reduces your depression, anxiety, stress. Increases the energy levels. Stabilizes your circulation and help body to use oxygen. Gives strength to your bones.

Healthy Diet: By eating a healthy diet your fitness level will definitely improve.

Directions: Eat small and healthy diet. Before you eat drink water. Add one fruit and vegetable in your diet and eat it after every meal. Use small plate for eating purpose.

Retrain your breathing skills: If you learn new techniques for breathing purpose then it will help you move more air in and out of lungs.

Diaphragmatic: Through your nose breathe slowly and deeply. While doing this push your stomach out it uses the diaphragm also lowers the respiratory muscles.

Pursed Lip: When you breathe out then purse your lips like you do it during whistling. Breathe slowly and do not force the air out.   

Use of medications: You should take your medicines correctly on time and never skip a dose.

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